, Stalin was now the party's supreme leader, although he was not the head of government, a task he entrusted to key ally Vyacheslav Molotov. , Stalin's Soviet Union has been characterised as a totalitarian state, with Stalin its authoritarian leader.  In 1946, the state published Stalin's Collected Works. He initially refused, leading to an international crisis in 1946, but one year later Stalin finally relented and moved the Soviet troops out. , — U.S. ambassador W. Averell Harriman, Keenly interested in the arts, Stalin admired artistic talent. , Stalin strengthened and stabilised the Soviet Union; Service suggested that without him the country might have collapsed long before 1991. Malenkov denounced the Stalin personality cult, which was subsequently criticised in Pravda. Either we do this or we'll be crushed.  In 1936, Nikolai Yezhov became head of the NKVD.  His successor, Vladimir Putin, did not seek to rehabilitate Stalin but emphasised the celebration of Soviet achievements under Stalin's leadership rather than the Stalinist repressions; however, in October 2017 Putin opened the Wall of Grief memorial in Moscow, noting that the "terrible past" would neither be "justified by anything" nor "erased from the national memory".  Stalin aided the Chinese as the KMT and the Communists had suspended their civil war and formed the desired United Front.  He was sexually promiscuous, although rarely talked about his sex life. Articles and topics related to Joseph Stalin, Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party: 1899–1904, Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1912, Rise to the Central Committee and editorship of, Dekulakisation, collectivisation, and industrialisation: 1927–1931, Post-war reconstruction and famine: 1945–1947, In the Soviet Union and its successor states, Despite abolishing the office of General Secretary in 1952, Stalin continued to exercise its powers as the, After Stalin's death, Georgy Malenkov succeeded him as both, Renamed from Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union in 1946, Stalin's original Georgian name was Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili (, While forced to give up control of the Secretariat almost immediately after succeeding Stalin as the body's, Although there is inconsistency among published sources about Stalin's exact date of birth, Ioseb Jughashvili is found in the records of the Uspensky Church in Gori, Georgia as born on 18 December (, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, robbing of a large delivery of money to the Imperial Bank, Joseph Stalin in the Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, and Polish–Soviet War, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, granting Finland's request for independence in December, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, major famine which peaked in the winter of 1932–33, The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), as well as sitting members of the Central Committee, attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, between 26 and 27 million Soviet citizens had been killed, Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR, Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist), Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology, Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s, "- The Personality Cult of Stalin in Soviet Posters, 1929–1953 - ANU".  At the second Cominform conference, held in Bucharest in June 1948, East European communist leaders all denounced Tito's government, accusing them of being fascists and agents of Western capitalism. , In early 1928 Stalin travelled to Novosibirsk, where he alleged that kulaks were hoarding their grain and ordered that the kulaks be arrested and their grain confiscated, with Stalin bringing much of the area's grain back to Moscow with him in February.  Ultimately he believed that all nations would merge into a single, global human community, and regarded all nations as inherently equal. U.S. led forces pushed the North Koreans back.  Montefiore argued that while Stalin initially ruled as part of a Communist Party oligarchy, in 1934 the Soviet government transformed from this oligarchy into a personal dictatorship, with Stalin only becoming "absolute dictator" between March and June 1937, when senior military and NKVD figures were eliminated. , After the civil war, workers' strikes and peasant uprisings broke out across Russia, largely in opposition to Sovnarkom's food requisitioning project; as an antidote, Lenin introduced market-oriented reforms: the New Economic Policy (NEP). We have fallen behind the advanced countries by fifty to a hundred years. En ce matin du 5 mars 1953, les citoyens soviétiques se réveillaient en apprenant une nouvelle stupéfiante. Livre terrifiant que tous ceux qui louent Staline (toujours en Georgie où un ministre a comparé Staline (sa mere, dont j'ai vu la tombe grandiose, travaillait pour mon arrière grand mere mingrelienne qui a payé les études du fiston au séminaire) à mon arrière grand oncle.Napoleon.  By the 1920s, he was also suspicious and conspiratorial, prone to believing that people were plotting against him and that there were vast international conspiracies behind acts of dissent. Quiconque sâopposant à lui, passe devant un tribunal improvisé, Troïka, et est exécuté ou envoyé en Sibérie dans les goulags.  The biographer Dmitri Volkogonov characterised him as "one of the most powerful figures in human history", while McDermott stated that Stalin had "concentrated unprecedented political authority in his hands", and Service noted that by the late 1930s, Stalin "had come closer to personal despotism than almost any monarch in history". After the heist, Stalin settled in Baku with his wife and son.  Lenin believed that the Polish proletariat would rise up to support the Russians against Józef Piłsudski's Polish government.  According to Svetlana, it had been "a difficult and terrible death".  Discussing the fate of the Balkans, later in 1944 Churchill agreed to Stalin's suggestion that after the war, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Yugoslavia would come under the Soviet sphere of influence while Greece would come under that of the West. Then he launched and saw through a bloody socialist remaking of the entire former empire, presided over a victory in the greatest war in human history, and took the Soviet Union to the epicentre of global affairs.  Stalin's doctrine held that socialism could be completed in Russia but that its final victory there could not be guaranteed because of the threat from capitalist intervention.   The idea that this was a targeted attack on the Ukrainians is complicated by the widespread suffering that also affected other Soviet peoples in the famine, including the Russians.  At the same time, he disregarded orders and repeatedly threatened to resign when affronted.  With this accomplished, Marxist governments now controlled a third of the world's land mass. Joseph Vissarionovitch Djougachvili Staline :né en 1879, dâune famille très modeste, il rallie en 1917 le parti bolchevique â le futur PCUS. Le regard sur le parcours d'un meurtrier psychopathe, Joseph Stalin.  In May 1932, he introduced a system of kolkhoz markets where peasants could trade their surplus produce. , Going against the advice of Zhukov and other generals, Stalin emphasised attack over defence.  Tensions among these former Allies grew, resulting in the Cold War.  An agreement was also made that a post-war Polish government should be a coalition consisting of both communist and conservative elements. Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes unacceptable in the position of General Secretary.  Stalin built up a retinue of his supporters in the Central Committee, while the Left Opposition were gradually removed from their positions of influence.  The new newspaper was launched in April 1912, although Stalin's role as editor was kept secret.  There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the British Empire.  Although Zinoviev was concerned about Stalin's growing authority, he rallied behind him at the 13th Congress as a counterweight to Trotsky, who now led a party faction known as the Left Opposition.  Stalin did not personally attend the meeting, sending Zhdanov in his place.  There was also internal turmoil in the Communist Party, as Trotsky led a faction calling for the abolition of trade unions; Lenin opposed this, and Stalin helped rally opposition to Trotsky's position.  Aware that the ethnic Russian majority may have concerns about being ruled by a Georgian, he promoted ethnic Russians throughout the state hierarchy and made the Russian language compulsory throughout schools and offices, albeit to be used in tandem with local languages in areas with non-Russian majorities.  Many Soviet soldiers engaged in looting, pillaging, and rape, both in Germany and parts of Eastern Europe. , As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with the Soviet Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. Assis dans le jardin de Cecilienhof à Potsdam, Allemagne, de gauche à droite : le premier ministre britannique Clement Attlee, le Président Harry S. Truman, et le premier ministre soviétique Joseph Staline.  Stalin insisted that, after the war, the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, which Churchill opposed.  He ensured that returning Soviet prisoners of war went through "filtration" camps as they arrived in the Soviet Union, in which 2,775,700 were interrogated to determine if they were traitors.  Recognising the need for drastic steps to be taken to combat inflation and promote economic regeneration, in December 1947 Stalin's government devalued the ruble and abolished the ration-book system.  He was of the view that if they became fully autonomous, then they would end up being controlled by the most reactionary elements of their community; as an example he cited the largely illiterate Tatars, whom he claimed would end up dominated by their mullahs.  Although he and Stalin had been close for many years, Bukharin expressed concerns about these policies; he regarded them as a return to Lenin's old "war communism" policy and believed that it would fail. Directed by Agnieszka Holland.  In November 1907, his wife died of typhus, and he left his son with her family in Tiflis. , As Soviet leader, Stalin typically awoke around 11 am, with lunch being served between 3 and 5 pm and dinner no earlier than 9 pm; he then worked late into the evening. By January 1953, three percent of the Soviet population was imprisoned or in internal exile, with 2.8 million in "special settlements" in isolated areas and another 2.5 million in camps, penal colonies, and prisons.  Although he got into many fights, Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, and singing as a choirboy.  According to Montefiore, despite Stalin's affinity for Russia and Russians, he remained profoundly Georgian in his lifestyle and personality. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.  In his private life, he divided his time between his Kremlin apartment and a dacha at Zubalova; his wife gave birth to a daughter, Svetlana, in February 1926. Câest ainsi que, le 25 décembre 1946, le procureur général dâURSS, K. P. GorÅ¡enin, a adressé au ministre de lâIntérieur, S.N.  Stalin also developed close relations with the trio at the heart of the secret police (first the Cheka and then its replacement, the State Political Directorate): Felix Dzerzhinsky, Genrikh Yagoda, and Vyacheslav Menzhinsky.  There, he emphasised what he regarded as leadership qualities necessary in the future and highlighted the weaknesses of various potential successors, particularly Molotov and Mikoyan.  Unlike senior Bolsheviks like Kamenev and Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin never expressed concern about the rapid growth and expansion of the Cheka and Red Terror.  In 1950, Stalin issued the article "Marxism and Problems of Linguistics", which reflected his interest in questions of Russian nationhood. , After the Bolsheviks seized power, both right and left-wing armies rallied against them, generating the Russian Civil War.  In early 1908, he travelled to the Swiss city of Geneva to meet with Lenin and the prominent Russian Marxist Georgi Plekhanov, although the latter exasperated him. , Stalin desired a "cultural revolution", entailing both the creation of a culture for the "masses" and the wider dissemination of previously elite culture.   It was incorporated into a growing personality cult devoted to Lenin, with Petrograd being renamed "Leningrad" that year.  Remaining underground, he helped plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities.  After Bukharin's departure, Stalin placed the Communist International under the administration of Dmitry Manuilsky and Osip Piatnitsky.  As an infant, Stalin displayed a love of flowers, and later in life he became a keen gardener.  Following Lenin's death, Stalin contributed to the theoretical debates within the Communist Party, namely by developing the idea of "Socialism in One Country".  Polling by the Levada Center suggest Stalin's popularity has grown since 2015, with 46% of Russians expressing a favourable view of him in 2017 and 51% in 2019.  Through the Communist International, Stalin's government exerted a strong influence over Marxist parties elsewhere in the world; initially, Stalin left the running of the organisation largely to Bukharin.  In September 1934, he launched a commission to investigate false imprisonments; that same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan.  Across Eastern Europe, the Soviet model was enforced, with a termination of political pluralism, agricultural collectivisation, and investment in heavy industry.  Socialist revolutionaries accused Stalin's talk of federalism and national self-determination as a front for Sovnarkom's centralising and imperialist policies.  Believing that victory was assured by numerical superiority, he sent large numbers of Red Army troops into battle against the region's anti-Bolshevik White armies, resulting in heavy losses; Lenin was concerned by this costly tactic. Whereas Lenin believed that all countries across Europe and Asia would readily unite as a single state following proletariat revolution, Stalin argued that national pride would prevent this, and that different socialist states would have to be formed; in his view, a country like Germany would not readily submit to being part of a Russian-dominated federal state.  At a banquet held for army commanders, he described the Russian people as "the outstanding nation" and "leading force" within the Soviet Union, the first time that he had unequivocally endorsed the Russians over other Soviet nationalities.  He was a hard worker, and displayed a keen desire to learn; when in power, he scrutinised many details of Soviet life, from film scripts to architectural plans and military hardware.